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HOW CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS ARE BENEFITING FROM DIGITIZATION OF PHOTO ARCHIVES

HOW CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS ARE BENEFITING FROM DIGITIZATION OF PHOTO ARCHIVES

“Today digital technology is pervasive. It is mandatory that museums, libraries, and archives join with educational institutions in embracing it.”

  • Wayne Clough, Author, Best of Both Worlds

Museums and cultural institutions are leaving no stone unturned to digitize history. Archiving photos form an integral part of documenting history. Continuing with our previous post on how cultural institutions are leveraging photo archiving, in this post, we will detail why museums and cultural institutions should leverage photo archiving.

Easy Sharing and Distribution

Unlike physical copies, scanned photos can be easily shared across multiple locations with multiple users. Easier to track electronically, it is also cost effective for researchers and curators as it eliminates the need for physical reproduction and mailing.

Prepare for Disasters

Museums and cultural institutions are not free from the risk of losing valuable content. Natural calamities like earthquakes, floods, heavy rains, or hurricanes and tsunamis have destroyed museums and libraries over the centuries, resulting in the loss of valuable content. Digitization will curb the risk of loss of valuable photographs.

Save Cost and Clutter

Maintaining physical copies of photo prints requires physical storage space and involves cost. Digitizing photos can save institutions cost that is involved in keeping physical copies and make it easier to share and reproduce.

Source of Revenue

Owners of photos of rare events and occurrences can generate a revenue stream in terms of royalty or licensing fee. Different types of models can be adopted like selling prints through your own website, third-party portals, exhibiting in galleries etc.

Tip for Successful Photo Digitization – Prioritizing Which Items to Digitize

Depending on the priority and goals, every institution shortlists the photos that need to be digitized.  Some questions that organizations need to ask before selecting the images for digitization are:

  1. Are the records unique?
  2. Do the photos appeal visually?
  3. Who will be the prospective consumer of the digitized images?
  4. Does the demand justify the cost that will be incurred to digitize the photos?
  5. Will digitization add any value to the picture?
  6. How will the institution control access to the digitized images? Will, there be any restriction or can it be accessed openly?
  7. Does the institution have the legal right to scan?
  8. What is the long-term preservation strategy of the photos being digitized?
  9. What is the metadata that will be required?

Once institutions have selected items that need to be digitized, here are some critical considerations while scanning photos.

  1. Once you have a flatbed scanner ready, set the scanner, photoshop, and the printer to the same color space – CMYK or RGB.
  2. To capture many shades of gray (which is essential especially for black and white photos), choose the right DPI. Depending on the size of the picture, DPI should be around 3000 – 4000 pixels along the length of the image.
  3. Choose the format of preservation carefully. For Masterfile, the recommended format is TIFF.
  4. Save a JPEG copy for easy distribution among researchers.
  5. To avoid damage and file loss, keep the Master copy separate from the distributed copy.

Photo/ image archivists should prioritize digitizing susceptible photos like colored photos and cellulose nitrate or films. The context of each of these photos should also be documented, and each item needs to have metatags to make them easily accessible in time of need. To know about the top six mistakes to avoid while digitizing photos, read this blog.

Decoding the Importance of Metadata in Digitization and Preservation of Content

Decoding the Importance of Metadata in Digitization and Preservation of Content

Introduction

Digital media has come a long way over the past decade. The shift from single-screen to multiple-screen and multi-device, from the subscription-based model to OTT service providers is apparent over the years. Keeping in line with the demand, broadcasters are also broadening their distribution channel.

With the audience having a wide variety of choice to consume video across platforms at their preferred time – broadcasters are leaving no stones unturned to digitize video content, even those dating back to decades.

Broadcasters are now focused on aggregation and distribution of highly-targeted content that reaches narrow-interest audiences. As broadcasters develop and store digital content to use and reuse across devices and platforms, the value of good shareable content is increasing.

However, the problem lies elsewhere. An estimated 98% of archived media is not available for digital distribution.[1]

Why?

Migrating hours of media content from tape to digital storage is time-consuming. Though automated migration systems convert tapes to multiple digital formats simultaneously, tagging these files to make them searchable is a challenge.

Have you ever wondered how – when you Google – some videos top the search results? With an average of 300 hours[2] of video content being uploaded to YouTube alone every minute, content producers and owners sweat over making their content optimized for search results.

The solution

The key to ensuring that your content doesn’t get lost in the crowd is tagging it with relevant keywords. While search engines have evolved over the years, they are still not human – hence can’t read/watch your content. They need a hint (or metadata) to understand the content and apply analytics to list them. While filtering, the search engine follows the following order – title, description, and tags. If you optimize these three, half of the battle is won.

In this paper, we will explore:

  • What is metadata?
  • Types of metadata
  • Metadata Schema Models
  • The importance of metadata in content digitization
  • Optimizing metadata for content digitization

What is metadata?

Metadata refers to “data about data.”[3] It represents a detailed description of the underlying data within an object concerning its title, date & time of creation, format, length, language, year of reference, narration describing the object’s identity & purpose, etc.

For long-term digital archiving, metadata refers to the preservation techniques that are applied to the digital objects in the archives. Metadata does the following:

  • Helps in easy identification, location, and retrieval of information by the end-users
  • Provides information about quality aspects or issues of the created object along with its access privileges/rights
  • Ensures smooth data management

Types of metadata

Depending on the nature of data and usability in a real-world scenario, metadata can be categorized as:

  • Descriptive: Helps to identify, locate, and retrieve information related to an object through indexing and navigation to related links. It includes elements such as title, creator, identity, and description
  • Structural: Defines the complexity of an object along with the role of individual data files, ordering of pages to form a chapter, file names, and their organization, etc.
  • Administrative: Helps to manage the resources in terms of its creation, methods, access rights, associated copyright, and the techniques required for preserving it
  • Rights: Defines access permissions and constraint over the stored objects and information contained in them at different levels
  • Preservation: Records activities or methodology opted in the archive for preserving digital data.
  • Technical: Provides technical information embedded with the digital object (content files). It describes attributes of the digital image (not the analog source of the picture) and helps to ensure that the image will be rendered with accuracy, capture process of the data, and their transformation.
  • Provenance: Records object’s origin/nativity and the changes that were performed to these objects for its resolution, format, perspectives, etc.
  • Tracking: Keeps track of the data at different stages of the workflow (data automation processes, digital capturing, transformation, processing filters and toolsets, enhancement, quality control and management, and data archival and deliverables)

For long-term digital preservation, two types of metadata play a crucial role:

  1. Packaging Metadata

Defines three kinds of information packages, which are as follows:

  1. Submission Information Package (SIP) – Contains information delivered to the archive from the content provider
  2. Archival Information Package (AIP) – Related content information stored in the archive
  3. Dissemination Information Package (DIP) – On request delivery of information to the user
  1. Preservation Metadata

Records the process that supports the preservation of digital data

Metadata Schema Models

According to ISO 23081[4], a schema is “a logical plan showing the relationships between metadata elements, normally through establishing rules for the use and management of metadata specifically as regards the semantics, the syntax and the optionality (obligation level) of values.”

The amount of metadata that needs to be stored for an object depends on its functional usage & significance. With a large amount of metadata already there, and more being published regularly for a different purpose by different communities, metadata schema designers need unique experience of using the Semantic Web to consider a metadata schema.

For long term preservation of data, a varying Metadata Schema Models has been developed, which includes the following:

  • MARC: Machine Readable Cataloguing
  • MARCXML: XML version of MARC 21
  • METS: Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard
  • MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema
  • DCMI: Dublin Core Metadata Initiative
  • CDWA: Categories for the Description of Works of Art
  • CRM: CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model
  • MPEG-7: Moving Picture Coding Experts Group
  • EAD: Encoded Archival Description
  • RDF: Resource Description Framework
  • VRA CORE: Visual Resources Association
  • DDI: Data Documentation Initiative
  • MIX: Metadata for Images in XML Standard
  • IEEE LOM: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association for the description of “learning objects”

The importance of metadata in content digitization

Metadata plays a key role in processing, managing, accessing, and preserving digital content –be it audio, video, or image collections. Metadata has the following key functionalities:

  • Search: To search for data associated with a file like Author, Date Published, Key Words, etc.
  • Distribute: To determine when and where the content will be distributed
  • Access: To determine delivery of targeted content based upon preset rules matching metadata values
  • Retain: To determine which records to archive

Optimizing metadata for content digitization

The importance of metadata lies in the fact that it makes the content searchable – both online and offline. While filtering, the search engine follows the following order – title, description, and tags. Some key points to remember while using metadata for content digitization are:

Optimize the title

Grab the attention with a catchy and compelling title. To make a title search engine (and mobile) friendly, limit it to 120 characters and include your top keywords. Think what the audience would relate to, and make the title informative and relevant.

Optimize the description

Follow and include the keywords, and detail what the content is all about. Limit the most critical information within the first 22 words of your description – as search engine displays it on the list before you click ‘see more’ button.

Optimize the tags

A couple of things to keep in mind while tagging a digital asset are:

  1. Assign keywords that cover the 5 W’s – what, when, who, why, and where – to make it a well-captured asset
  2. Avoid grammatical errors while assigning keywords
  3. Avoid ambiguous words or words with multiple meanings
  4. Be consistent with abbreviations and acronyms
  5. Use a minimum of 8 – 12 tags per asset

Conclusion

Metadata plays a crucial role in keeping track of content right from its inception to its processing and accessibility. It provides a complete description of the purpose and functionality of the data, making it easier for end-users to locate and retrieve the data. Therefore, it is crucial that all contents should have embedded metadata in them.

[1] https://www.recode.net/2014/4/8/11625358/modernizing-the-entertainment-industry-supply-chain-in-the-age-of

[2] https://merchdope.com/youtube-stats/

[3] https://www.techopedia.com/definition/1938/metadata

[4] https://committee.iso.org/sites/tc46sc11/home/projects/published/iso-23081-metadata-for-records.html

Six Steps For Restoring Your Old Films

Six Steps For Restoring Your Old Films

Did you know that 50% of all full-length features produced before 1950 have vanished? Fewer than 20% of features from the 1920s survive in complete form; survival rates of 1910s is <10%?[i]

While more than 90% of the world cinema produced before 1929 can no more be restored and are lost forever, the major players – from restoration agencies to film production houses – are trying to revive old classics digitally.

Film restoration is an archaeological expedition for curators. Apart from factors like dust, scratches, film grains, shrinkage, and color fade, heritage films are also at-risk due to climate conditions, lack of training in film preservation, and sometimes, unstable political conditions.

Film restoration is crucial for the preservation of films, especially those whose original elements have substantially deteriorated. The critical steps of restoring a film are as follows:

  1. Film identification: Film restoration is a costly and labor-intensive process, sometimes consuming more than 1,000 staff-hours to repair a film. Therefore, it is essential to identify the films that need to be restored.
  2. Film treatment and repair: Curators clean the films using chemicals, cleaning machines. Further, they use splicing tape, film cement, or ultrasonic splicers to repair perforations and tear on a film before using it on projectors, printers, and other sprocket-driven film equipment.
  3. Digitization/ Scanning: Curators scan each frame into a digital file before proceeding with restoration. The back-up copy replicates the video and audio content of the film and ensures the copy can be used in the future to create subsequent viewing copies.
  4. Film comparison: Before proceeding with the restoration, curators compare all the known surviving source materials to ensure the chosen version is the best available version for restoration.
  5. Digital restoration: A widely used restoration format today, the films are restored using digital or hybrid techniques, and the output can be in film or digital form. Digital restoration also incorporates the following:
    • Comparing each frame to its adjacent frames
    • Fixing the frame alignment
    • Restore areas blocked by dirt and dust by using parts of images in other frames
    • Restore scratches by using parts of images in different frames
    • Reducing film grain noise
    • Restoring sound
    • Correcting flickering, lighting, and color changes, even minimal, from one frame to another due to the aging of the film
  1. Digital asset management: It is essential to create a set of database records with metadata and other relevant information that allows end users to identify, locate, and retrieve a film from the archive.

 

From documentaries to fictional narratives, newsreels, industrial films, home movies, political ads, and travelogues, films are a witness of the past. By restoring these works, we can illuminate our heritage with the power and immediacy unique to film. To know more about film restoration, read:

 

[i] http://besser.tsoa.nyu.edu/howard/Talks/cineteca-mexicana.pdf
Key considerations for digitizing hospital records

Key considerations for digitizing hospital records

With the ever-growing population leading to an increasing number of patients every day, hospital staff and doctors find it difficult to maintain medical records on paper. The traditional system of keeping records is not only cumbersome but also has other challenges like:

  • Slow: With information being exchanged mainly through calls, fax, or mail, the process of information transfer is prolonged, leading to loss of time, sometimes life for critical patients.
  • Lack of unified view: Patient information is scattered across departments like doctor, lab, pharmacy, and hospital, making it difficult to access across departments and doctors. Hence, often doctors and hospitals missed out on relevant information like drug allergies.
  • Storage: With a paper-based system, storing all the data is a challenge both in terms of space and cost. Moreover, patients need to carry a physical copy of reports, prescriptions, and their medical history, which is not feasible in case of emergencies.

Thanks to technological advancement, hospitals, and doctors are resorting to maintaining records electronically, which can be accessed both by doctors and patients across any device anytime.

Medical record management involves maintaining all records of a patient throughout their lifecycle from creation, receipt, maintenance, and use to disposal. Medical records include a patient’s history, clinical findings, diagnostic test results, pre- and postoperative care, patient progress, and medications.

While the benefits of maintaining medical records electronically are many, we have listed some of them below:

  • Access and storage: Storing documents is cumbersome, both in terms of space and sorting. Electronic medical records not only save space but also makes sorting and search easy with tags and meta tags.
  • Cost saving: Setting up the system is costly and involve resources. However, once set up, hospitals and health professionals will need less support to manage, less security to protect, and less space to save – contributing to cost saving.
  • Security: Electronic documents are backed up onto multiple systems. Hence the loss of a document is not irreversible like paper documents. Moreover, the files are encrypted, and security access can be set to prevent unauthorized access, making the records more secure.

While it is convenient to maintain health records electronically, doctors and hospitals should consider the following[1] while transferring from paper-based reports to electronic reports:

  • Which historical patient information should be available for patient visits during and after the transition?
  • What are the best methods of converting this information to the EHR?
  • What is the best way to ensure that the converted data and information is of sufficient quality?
  • How long should the paper record be available after the conversion?
  • How long do paper records need to be kept after the transition to the EHR?
  • What is the role of printing and should it be allowed during the transition?

How to convert the data?

While there are multiple methods to convert data, cost and patient safety must be considered while choosing the mode of data entry. For example, drug allergies should be entered manually and not scanned, as scanned documents cannot be cross-referenced.

Depending on the cost, timeframe, type of data, and availability of resources, hospitals and clinics can resort to the following methods to convert the data:

Direct data entry: Items such as allergies, medications, and symptoms are loaded into predetermined data fields, which staffs well-versed in medical terminology enter into the system to ensure minimal error.

Backloading from other systems: Depending on the patient population, available historical information electronically, and final version of the patient information available, transcribed noted can be backloaded into the system.

Document imaging: Although a labor-intensive and expensive process, document imaging is necessary for reports and scans.

EMR in India

While most of the developed countries have already opted for EMR, some challenges for a country with a population like India remain. While most corporate hospitals have already started maintaining EMR, there is a rare exchange of EMRs between the hospitals. Considering most of the population is not technologically advanced and belong to rural areas, India needs a comprehensive EMR system that is easy-to-learn and user-friendly.

[1] http://library.ahima.org/doc?oid=103171#.XC9M71wzbIW

Five factors that damage audio tapes

Five factors that damage audio tapes

Cassette tapes were first produced at a mass scale in the early 1960s and became popular in the 1980s. Long before DVDs and cloud storage became popular, audio tapes and reels were used to record information. Magnetic tapes have a lifespan between 10 – 30 years and has been used to record and store sound, numeric and textual information, motion, and still images. While magnetic media adds on to the kind of artifacts, we can use to capture and store, their transience and degradability have been a concern for archivists and librarians.

To understand the reason for the degradation of audio tapes/reels, we need to delve into the components that form these tapes. Tapes have three parts – a magnetic layer, binder, and backing – all of which are potential sources of failure.

  1. The magnetic layer has a magnetic pigment suspended within a polymer binder.
  2. The binder holds the magnetic particles together and helps in recording and storing the magnetic signals written to it.
  3. The backing film supports the magnetic recording layer, which is very thin and cannot be a stand-alone layer.

All these components are susceptible to damage in the following ways:

Instabilities in the magnetic particle (top layer): If there is any change in the magnetic properties of the pigment that stores the recorded information, the recorded signals are irretrievable. The magnetic particle can become unstable due to demagnetization by an external factor like a hand-held metal detector, or suffer normal wear and tear.

Loss of lubricant in the binder: Lubricants reduce the friction of the magnetic top coat of the tape, reducing tape wear. With time, the level of lubricant decreases due to normal wear and tear, frequent consumption, degradation, and evaporation.

Substrate deformation (backing film): Polyester that is used as a substrate backing is chemically stable. However, excessive tape pack stresses, aging, and poor wind quality can cause deformation of the polyester in the substrate, thereby distorting the tapes.

Various factors result in the damage of audio tapes and reels. We have listed five of them below:

  1. Temperature and humidity: High temperatures and humidity can decrease magnetic capability, deteriorate the binder or backing of the magnetic tape, resulting in loss of readable data. Ideally, tapes should be stored at a temperature between 0° C – 23° C and in places with less than 70% humidity to prevent fungal growth and degradation.
  2. Frequent access: Frequent access reduce the life expectancy of tapes due to wear and tear. The more tape is handled, the more it is contaminated with fingerprints and debris, which reduces its life considerably.
  3. Exposure to the strong magnetic field: Strong magnetic fields like luggage screeners in airports, X-ray scanners, and metal detectors – both hand-held and walk-through – can erase information from audio tapes and reels, which uses magnetic particle to store data.
  4. Dust and debris: Dust, tape debris, and smoke particles can affect the tape when it is being played, resulting in loss of signal, and subsequently damaging the tape.
  5. Corrosive gases: Magnetic tapes are susceptible to airborne sulfides, ozone, and nitrous oxides. Bare metal particle (MP) and metal evaporated (ME) tapes, which are contained in cassettes, are affected by corrosive gases.

While storage options are aplenty now, audio tapes and reels are still of sentimental and historical value to librarians, archivists, and old people. While audio reels will degrade with time, some ways in which the decay can be contained are:

  1. Using and storing magnetic tape reels and cassettes in a clean environment.
  2. Avoiding contamination of the tapes by dirt, dust, fingerprints, food, cigarette smoke and ash, and airborne pollutants.
  3. Keeping the tapes away from strong sunlight and water.
  4. Not storing tapes near electronic or magnetic fields.
  5. Ensuring the reels are not laid flat for long periods while storing.

Having said all of that, it is best to create a back-up and copy of the information in modern formats to ensure there is no information lost.

How Cultural Institutions are Leveraging Photo Archiving

How Cultural Institutions are Leveraging Photo Archiving

Museums and cultural institutions play a valuable role in preserving the rich cultural heritage of our planet.  By recording the history of different era and communities, such institutions help us understand our history, deepening our knowledge and respect for various cultures and traditions.

However, with time, the ways of accessing the history is changing. G. Wayne Clough, the author of Best of Both Worlds, says, “Today digital technology is pervasive. It is mandatory that museums, libraries, and archives join with educational institutions in embracing it.”

To keep with this trend, photo archiving has been a prime focus of many cultural institutions. Some forerunners in this space are:

Pharos

Pharos, the “International Consortium of Photo Archives” – a joint effort of 14 institutions like the Getty and the Frick, the National Gallery of Art, the Yale Center for British Art, Rome’s Bibliotheca Hertziana, and the Courtauld Institute among others will host 25 million images – 17 million artworks and 8 million supplemental material. The Consortium aims to have 7 million images online by 2020.

Primarily aimed at scholars, Pharos uploads a work’s provenance, attribution, exhibition, conservation, and bibliographic histories. The Consortium currently has more than 100,000 images and 60,000 artworks of early Christian art from the National Gallery, classical and Byzantine art and mosaics from the Frick, statuary from the Bibliotheca Hertziana, and photographs of Roman pottery among other collectibles.

Smithsonian Design Museum

Cooper Hewitt, popularly known as the Smithsonian Design Museum has embarked on an ambitious digitization project where they have digitized more than 92 percent of the 3000-year-old museum collection.

Durham Museum

The photo archive of the Durham Museum in Nebraska documents the history of Omaha in more than 1 million images from the 1860s. Dedicated to the long-term storage of photographs to preserve a part of the past, the photos document moments like Presidents on parade, streetcars, storefronts, and images from the early days of the city.

Oslo City Museum

The Oslo City Museum, with over 2 million objects, has started archiving photos to preserve the lifestyle, history, and development of the city in time. More than 100,000 photos have already been digitized in the museum’s system.

Norwegian Labour Movement Archives and Library

Four special groups are working together to organize the collection of Norwegian Labor Movement Archives and Library, which comprises of 1,500,000 items about Oslo History in general aspect and narrative about labor history.

Google

Google has a similar project – Google Art Project – which lets users’ virtually tour 17 of the world’s major institutions like Ufizzi, New York Met, and Tate among others.

Benefits of photo archiving

While the benefits of archiving history are many, here is a list of the four prominent benefits:

  1. Reachability: With photo archiving, learning about history and culture is no more only restricted to museum booklets or guided tours. With web-based virtual walk-through and videos, museums and cultural institutions can reach out to a broader audience base.
  2. Multiple revenue sources: Photo archiving has opened new revenue sources for cultural institutions. Many museums have websites selling online tickets, replicas of artifacts, historical DVDs, and 3D immersive trips to let the audience experience history from the comfort of home.
  3. Long-term preservation of cultural heritage: Physical copies of photos and artifacts are subject to wear-and-tear and natural calamities. Digitization has made preservation of history easier and more accessible.
  4. Ease of research: Photo archiving has made researching on an era or finding the right image for a project easier. For example, Pharos, the Consortium of Photo Archives has made millions of photos accessible to the artists and researchers in a click, saving time and energy.

With digitization, consumers have easy access to media and information through connected devices, making sharing more accessible and faster. Hence, more cultural institutions are trying to expand their horizon to reach out to new audiences and digitize their collection for long-term preservation.

7 Document Management Trends to Watch Out For

7 Document Management Trends to Watch Out For

Businesses world over are undergoing a digital transformation and organizations are investing in tools, technology and processes to go paperless by converting their documents to digital formats. These documents may be forms, invoices, letters books, journals, photos, maps, manuscripts, office records or other printed materials.

Apart from being eco-friendly, the benefits of going digital are many, ranging from instant access, distribution and longevity to reduced cost of storage and more. As the world goes digital, let us look at some of the key document management trends that are shaping in the future:

Cloud-Based Document Management

With cloud storage being around for quite some years now, the initial hesitation has given way to adoption. The ease of accessibility and scalability has fueled the adoption of cloud storage for document management. Cloud storage ensures availability of documents on the go – without the need of being within a closed network.

Social Integration

Digital record managers are integrating social media technology into document management, making collaboration, storage, organization, and revision of the files a seamless task. Integration with social media also has the advantage of sharing documents in varied formats across various platforms for a wide range of audience.

Artificial Intelligence

With artificial intelligence gaining popularity, document management will witness new search capabilities in the coming year. AI will make search simpler with the right keywords and voice search, allowing professionals to focus on their work rather than spending time searching for the documents that they need.

Robotic Process Automation

Robotic process automation is gradually gaining popularity to avoid mundane tasks and focus on tasks that create value. In the coming years, software “robots” will automate labor-intensive repetitive activities that are prone to errors. RPA will see more adoption for document sorting, classification, automating routine operations, and integrating unstructured data like emails, forms, photos, and files.

Mobile Access

With the changing structure of the workplace environment, as more employees are working remotely, accessibility of documents from a wide variety of devices has become a necessity. As the world becomes a global village, workers need to be able to access the documents from devices including smartphones and tablets and work on them efficiently.

As mobile usage continues to grow, document accessibility is not the only requirement for the professionals who are always on-the-go, document management software also needs to be user-friendly to provide a seamless experience.

Collaboration

As geographical boundaries deem to exist, professionals are no longer dependent on face-to-face interaction. While working on emails already exists, it can be cumbersome and confusing. Collaboration and project management tools has been around and it is now becoming a part of mainstream platforms, which will make document management easier.

Coming years will see document managers collaborating online within a single social space in real-time which will make working on and managing multiple projects faster irrespective of the geographical location of the professionals.

Scalable Solutions

Scalability is a necessary criterion to keep up with the growing volume of documents. Modern Document Management Solutions will not only have the capability to let employees collaborate and edit on a single platform but will also enable the clients to scale up with the growing number of users, storage requirement, multiple locations or the volume of documents. Cloud based solutions will have an edge as they’d be able to offer pay-per-user or pay-as-per-storage pricing models.

Cloud computing, collaboration, and the proliferation of mobile devices are making lives easier for document management professionals. Coming years will continue to see the growth and mass adoption of technology giving birth to integrated, user-friendly solutions, blurring the physical space issues.

5 Classics Films Restored for the Digital Age

5 Classics Films Restored for the Digital Age

Movies made with photosensitive films and analog cameras until the 1990s had great details, but was also susceptible to dirt, temperature changes, and rough handling. As classics and old movies fall prey to the effects of time, content producers are digitizing to restore them.

With easy access to video on demand anytime anywhere, film producers and archives are leaving no stone un-turned to make the classics available to the viewers. While the film makers are setting new aesthetic standards with high quality and clarity of 4K resolution for restoring oldies, it comes at a time when watching movies on smartphones is more popular than DVDs or Blu-rays.

However, film restoration isn’t as simple as scanning the original 35mm film to produce a new version. It involves multiple steps like manual and automatic cleaning of the film to remove dust, scratches and other signs of aging, enhancing colors, sound and editing into single segment and adding special effects if necessary.

As the efforts are underway across the world to re-master and preserve classic films, we look at Hollywood’s past to list some of the best digitally remastered classics.

  1. Casablanca
Casablanca_MG_Blog
Credit: Google Images

With the Blu-ray 4K restoration, released in May 2017 to mark the 75th anniversary of the film release, the 1942 classic Casablanca never looked better. The scan restores the most dynamic and richest image and sounds possible, making the hard work behind the restoration job evident.  The film have been earlier restored twice for its 50th and 60th anniversary.

Casablanca, the winner of three Academy Awards, is a story of a romantic triangle between Victor Laszlo (Paul Henreid), his wife Ilsa (Ingrid Bergman) and her ex-lover Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart).

  1. North by Northwest
MG_BLOG_north_northwest
Credit: Google Images

To mark the 50th anniversary of Alfred Hitchcock’s sleek masterwork, Warner Home Video restored ‘North by Northwest’ in 1080p from original VistaVision and made it available on Blu-ray and DVD. Each frame was painstakingly transferred into the digital domain at 8k for the restoration, revealing a depth of field and clarity that was unimaginable before, thereby heightening the thrill of the classic.

  1. Dr. No
MG_Blog_DR.No
Credit: Google Images

The 1962 adventure of James Bond – his first adventure to be precise – is given a new life (and look) by the Lowry Digital. With a fresh 4K scan and clean-up, the remastered film in Blu-ray looks amazing with bright, clear picture, and sharp resolution.

  1. Gone with the Wind 
Gone with wind_MG_Blog
Credit: Google Images

The new 8K scan of the 1939 Civil War epic based on Margaret Mitchell’s novel has cleared the dirt and age defects away from the classic. Although the image is soft at times, details shine through. According to the critics, this edition is the best the film has looked to date, and that includes the theatrical release.

  1. Sleeping Beauty 
MG_Blog_disney-sleeping-beauty
Credit: Google Images

Restored from the original 2.55:1 negative, the 50th edition of Sleeping Beauty is a beautiful rendition. The original soundtracks were converted from Berlin Symphony Orchestra to DTS-HD Master Audio 7.1 soundtrack. Both the picture and sound quality are superb, making the edition better than the original version.

Some other classics that have been digitally restored are The Third Man, The Godfather, Star Trek Original Series Seasons 1 – 3, The Wizard of Oz, and Pinocchio. Remastering classic movies in 4K not only preserves the cinematic heritage for the new generation but also make movies look better than the past.